how does a molten salt reactor work

Therefore in practice the protactinium (Pa-233) formed from the thorium needs to be removed before it decays to U-233*, but this process is unproven at any scale. Moltex Energy's Stable Salt Reactor (SSR) is a conceptual UK reactor design that, like all conventional reactors in operation, relies on convection from static vertical fuel tubes in the core to convey heat to the reactor coolant. There are active molten salt plants like Crescent Dunes in Nevada, which has experienced setbacks that reduce its overall efficiency from a desired 50 percent to just 20 percent. The TMSR-SF program is proceeding with preliminary engineering design in cooperation with the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) and Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute (SNERDI). However, this concept, with fuel dissolved in the salt, is further from commercialisation than solid fuel designs, where the ceramic fuel may be set in prisms, plates, or pebbles, or one design with liquid fuel in static tubes. This is described as an air Brayton combined-cycle (ABCC) system in secondary circuit. Later (concurrently to MSR development),several AHR test reactors were built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (these were the HomogeneousReactor Experiments HRE-1 and HRE-2). It is truck transportable, being 9m long and 3.5m diameter. Molten salt reactors, as a class, include both burners and breeders in fast or thermal spectra, using fluoride or chloride salt-based fuels and a range of fissile or fertile consumables. When tests were made on the MSRE, a control rod was intentionally withdrawn during normal reactor operations at full power (8 MWt) to observe the dynamic response of core power. Since the 2002 Generation IV selection process, significant changes in design philosophy have taken place, according to a 2015 report by Energy Process Developments Ltd (EPD). Decay heat is removed by natural air convection. Actinides are fully recycled and remain in the reactor until they fission or are converted to higher actinides which do so. The epithermal (1 eV - 1 MeV) spectrum is lower than that with graphite, but in the fast spectrum (over 1 MeV) the neutron flux is greater than with graphite moderator, and therefore contributes strongly to actinide burning. In the secondary cooling circuit, air is compressed, heated, flows through gas turbines producing electricity, enters a steam recovery boiler producing steam that produces additional electricity, and exits to the atmosphere. A 100 MWt demonstration pebble bed plant with open fuel cycle is planned by about 2025. Residual heat removal is passive, by cavity cooling. In September 2018 the company announced that it would cease operations and make its intellectual property freely available online. FLiBe with 99.95% Li-7 would be used, and fuel as UF4. Xenon is removed rapidly by outgassing, but protactinium-233 is a problem with thorium as a fuel source. Flibe Energy in the USA is studying a 40 MW two-fluid graphite-moderated thermal reactor concept based on the 1960s-'70s US molten-salt reactor programme. Most secondary coolant salts do not use lithium, for cost reasons. It operates below grade at near atmospheric pressure and uses no water near the fuel salt. The nuclear energy sector has been plagues by a plethora of challenges in recent decades in regard to sufficiently and safely supplying the clean energy that first drove its expansion. "The use of the Th-U fuel cycle is of particular interest to the MSR, because this reactor is the only one in which the Pa-233 can be stored in a hold-up tank to let it decay to U-233." A version of the reactor may utilize thorium fuel. LFTRs can rapidly change their power output, and hence be used for load-following. Otherwise, newly-formed U-233 forms soluble uranium tetrafluoride (UF4), which is converted to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by bubbling fluorine gas through the salt (which does not chemically affect the less-reactive thorium tetrafluoride). Passive safety includes a freeze plug. NRC Advanced Reactor Workshop 2019. The technical difficulty of using molten salts is significantly lower when they do not have the very high activity levels associated with them bearing the dissolved fuels and wastes. It now has two baseline concepts: The GIF 2014 Roadmap said that a lot of work needed to be done on salts before demonstration reactors were operational, and suggested 2025 as the end of the viability R&D phase. * There was no breeding blanket, this being omitted for simplicity in favour of neutron measurements. Southern Company Services in the USA is developing a molten chloride fast reactor (MCFR) with TerraPower, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) – which hosts the work, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Vanderbilt University. It plans advanced experimental and numerical techniques, to deliver a breakthrough in nuclear safety and optimal waste management, and to create a consortium of stakeholders. Funding ceased in 1974. MSRs would normally operate at much higher temperatures than LWRs – up to at least 700°C, and hence have potential for process heat. The coolant salt in a secondary circuit was lithium + beryllium fluoride (FLiBe). As long as the pumps run, heat transfer will happen and the MSR will operate normally. The MSR works at near atmospheric pressure, eliminating the risk of explosive release of volatile radioactive materials. It would give up to 96% actinide burn-up. Several 550 MWt units would comprise a power station, and a 1000 MWe Thorcon plant would comprise about 200 factory- or shipyard-build modules installed below grade (30 m down). It is seen as having a much larger potential market, and initial deployment in the UK in the 2030s is anticipated, with potential for replacing CCGT and coal plants. In 2014, as part of an assessment of MSR activity internationally, proposals were made for pilot-scale implementation, where technical readiness was claimed. AHTR reactor sizes of 1500 MWe/3600 MWt are envisaged, with capital costs estimated at less than $1000/kW. FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF) is also eutectic and solidifies at 454°C and boils at 1570°C. * Th-232 gains a neutron to form Th-233, which soon beta decays (half-life 22 minutes) to protactinium-233. Molten salt reactors are not new. Instead, the fuel is dissolved into a liquid salt mixture, at high temperature (450-750 o C). Two methods of tritium stripping are being evaluated, and also tritium storage. See also Lithium paper. Owing to the ZrH moderator, there are significantly more neutrons in the thermal region (less than 1 eV) compared with a graphite moderator, thereby enabling the reactor to generate power from very low-enriched uranium or used LWR fuel. A molten salt reactor has already melted down if it’s in operation. If the fuel is used in a fast reactor, plutonium and actinides can be added. Two-fluid, or heterogeneous MSRs, would have fertile salt containing thorium in a second loop separate from the fuel salt containing fissile uranium or plutonium and could operate as a breeder reactor (MSBR). It may be possible to separate Pa-233 on-line and let it decay to U-233. Molten salt reactors (MSRs) use molten fluoride salts as primary coolant, at low pressure. The fuel comprised about one percent of the fluid. The TMSR-SF0 simulator is one-third scale, with FLiNaK cooling and a 400 kW electric heater. Thorium Tech Solutions Inc (TTS) plan to commercialise the Fuji concept, and is working on it with the Halden test reactor in Norway. It aims to address the problems/challenges of depleted graphite management and possibly positive temperature feedback existing in the current graphite moderated MSRs, and meanwhile to enhance the Th-U breeding performance. However, the U-233 is contaminated with up to 400 ppm U-232 which complicates processing, due to its highly gamma-active decay progeny. It has negative temperature and void coefficients. Thus, the high amount of nuclear plant shutdowns and faile… Popular Mechanics participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. The main reason is that this is a realistic first step. Instead, the fuel is dissolved into a liquid salt mixture, at high temperature (450-750 o C). Molten salt offers a way to store large amounts of heat with relatively small volumes of fluid, helping stabilise the supply of power from intermittent sources like solar, and immunise nuclear reactors from meltdowns. * Approx. In the secondary cooling circuit of the AHTR concept, air is compressed, heated, flows through gas turbines producing electricity, enters a steam recovery boiler producing steam that produces additional electricity, and exits to the atmosphere. The SAMOFAR (Safety Assessment of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor) project, based in the Netherlands and funded by the European Commission, aims to prove the safety concepts of the MSFR in breeding mode from thorium. When the sealed core is replaced after seven years, it is then left for fission products to decay. Selected fission products are removed online. This means that lithium must be enriched beyond its natural 92.5% Li-7 level to minimise tritium production. 1. Secondary loop coolant salt is sodium-beryllium fluoride (BeF2-NaF). The technology is very new at the commercial scale, NREL emphasizes, and needs to be developed for safety and best practices. Moltex has also put forward its GridReserve molten salt heat storage concept to enable the reactor to supplement intermittent renewables. It is a single-fluid thorium converter reactor in the thermal spectrum, graphite moderated. But extending the concept to dissolving the fissile and fertile fuel in the salt certainly represents a leap in lateral thinking relative to … How we test gear. It runs at a higher temperature than the fast version – minimum 600°C – with ZrF4-NaF coolant salt stabilised with ZrF2. The rate of damage increases with temperature, which is a particular problem with MSRs at 700°C. Hence fissile plutonium is largely consumed, and contributes significant energy. Thesesmall reactors were primarily used to study plutonium. Meanwhile caesium and iodine in particular remain secure in the molten salt. Fuel pebbles are 30 mm diameter, much less than gas-cooled HTRs. Also the beryllium in the salt is toxic, which leads to at least one design avoiding it, though this requires higher temperatures to keep LiF liquid. It has a higher neutron cross-section than FLiBe or LiF but can be used in intermediate cooling loops. It is relatively easy to remove the U-233 from the Pa-233 by fluorination to UF6 before reducing it to UF4 for adding to the primary fuel salt circuit. 2004, An advanced molten salt reactor using high-temperature reactor technology, American Nuclear Society, LeBlanc, D, 2009, Molten Salt Reactors: a new beginning for an old idea, Nuclear Engineering & Design 2010, Elsevier, Transatomic Power Corp., technical white paper, March 2014, Ignatiev, V & Feynberg, O, Kurchatov Inst, Molten Salt Reactor: overview and perspectives, OECD 2012, Appendix 6.0 Molten Salt Reactor, Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan – Fiscal Year 2007, Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (September 2007), Hargraves, R & Moir, R, 2010, Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors, American Scientist 98, Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) for Base-Load and Peak Electricity, Grid Stabilization, and Process Heat, Forsberg, Hu, Peterson, Sridharan, 2013, MIT, Wong, C & Merrill, B, 2004, Relevant MSRE and MSR Experience, ITER TBM Project Meeting at UCLA, 23-25 February 2004. Coolant salt is ZrF4-NaF-KF stabilised with ZrF2, and maximum temperature of 650°C. This allows the operator to maintain temperatures in a useful range, yet avoids exceeding temperatures that the the metal constructing the reactor can withstand. The hot molten salt in the primary circuit can be used with secondary salt circuit or secondary helium coolant generating power via the Brayton cycle as with HTR designs, with potential thermal efficiencies of 48% at 750°C to 59% at 1000°C, or simply with steam generators. However, the concept is not new, as outlined below. In new molten salt plant designs, which don’t need to rely on water-based precedents and can introduce next-generation nuclear technology, the nuclear fuel could be dissolved into the medium of molten salt. This simplified MSR integrates the primary reactor components, including primary heat exchangers to secondary clean salt circuit, in a sealed and replaceable core vessel that has a projected life of seven years. Up to this temperature, satisfactory structural materials are available. Because they are expected to be inexpensive to build and operate, 100 MWe LFTRs could be used as peak and back-up reserve power units. The US Department of Energy is collaborating with the China Academy of Sciences on the program, which had a start-up budget of $350 million. The individual fuel tubes are vented so that fission product gases escape into the coolant salt, which is a NaF-KF-ZrF4 mix (Li-7 fluoride is avoided for cost reasons). The thorium-232 captures neutrons from the reactor core to become protactinium-233, which decays (27-day half-life) to U-233. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options. Various applications as well as electricity generation are envisaged. Thorium, uranium, and plutonium all form suitable fluoride salts that readily dissolve in the LiF-BeF2 (FLiBe) mixture, and thorium and uranium can be easily separated from one another in fluoride form. ** Graphite is used to slow neutrons in epithermal designs, and deteriorates in a high neutron flux environment. Reprocessing that fuel salt online is even further from commercialization. Russia's Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) is a fast reactor fuelled only by transuranic (TRU) fluorides from uranium and MOX LWR used fuel. To handle its specific burnup characteristics, a Molten Salt Reactor specific depletion code - MODEC has been newly developed. While similar to the gas-cooled HTR it operates at low pressure (less than 1 atmosphere) and higher temperature, and gives better heat transfer than helium. Several, up to gigawatt-scale, can share a reactor tank, half-filled with the coolant salt which transfers heat away from the fuel assemblies to the peripheral steam generators, essentially by convection, at atmospheric pressure. The negative temperature and void reactivity coefficients passively reduce the rate of power increase in the case of an inadvertent control rod withdrawal (technically known as a ‘reactivity insertion’). Oak Ridge National Laboratory 507,046 views. It was the primary back-up option for the fast breeder reactor (cooled by liquid metal) and a small prototype 8 MWt Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) operated at Oak Ridge over four years to 1969 (the MSR program ran 1957-1976). Because the nuclear material is contained in fuel assemblies, standard industrial pumps can be used for the low radioactivity coolant salt. The suitability of molten salts for reactor coolant lies in its unique set of thermodynamic, solvent and radiation resistance qualities. It aims to have the first IMSRs in operation before 2030. Thorium may also be used, though it is described as a burner-converter rather than a breeder. Secondary coolant is FLiNaK to Brayton cycle, and for passive decay heat removal, separate auxiliary loops go to air-cooled radiators. It would be moderated by graphite with a four-year replacement schedule, use NaF-NaBF4 as the secondary coolant, and have a peak operating temperature of 705°C. Sodium-beryllium fluoride (BeF2-NaF) solidifying at 385°C is used as fuel salt in one design for cost reasons. Batch reprocessing. The basic design is not a fast neutron reactor, but with some moderation by the graphite is epithermal (intermediate neutron speed) and breeding ratio is less than 1. This is pumped through the graphite column core and heat exchanger. Molten salt reactors (MSRs) have their fuel dissolved in a hot, liquid salt, most often one based on Fluorine. No details are available, and it is not certain that it is a single-fluid type. For molten salt reactor designs to succeed, political support and military dollars may again be necessary. MSRs have large negative temperature and void coefficients of reactivity, and are designed to shut down due to expansion of the fuel salt as temperature increases beyond design limits. But extending the concept to dissolving the fissile and fertile fuel in the salt certainly represents a leap in lateral thinking relative to nearly every reactor operated so far. The high-level waste would comprise fission products only, hence with shorter-lived radioactivity. The Fuji MSR is a 100-200 MWe graphite-moderated design to operate as a near-breeder with ThF4-UF4 fuel salt and FLiBe coolant at 700°C. According to NRC 2007, the culmination of the Oak Ridge research over 1970-76 resulted in a MSR design that would use LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 (72-16-12-0.4) as fuel. The main priority was proliferation resistance, avoiding use of HEU. Seaborg is the largest reactor design start-up in Europe and they are making an ultra-compact molten salt reactor (CMSR). The IMSR ® uses a Generation IV reactor technology. The energy from the splitting of uranium atoms is used to directly heat up the molten salt. Safety is high due to passive cooling up to any size. LiF without the toxic beryllium solidifies at about 500°C and boils at about 1200°C. Kirk Sorensen has been a leader in promoting thorium energy, molten salt nuclear reactors and the liquid fluoride thorium reactor. It boils at 1430°C. A molten salt reactor also converts heat to electricity, but in this case the fuel does not come in the form of pellets. Most of the problems the NREL described are structural, because salt solutions just aren’t well understood in high-temperature nuclear contexts the same way water is after decades of regular use in power plants. MSRs may operate with epithermal or fast neutron spectrums, and with a variety of fuels. The UF6 is reduced and added to the fuel stream. Fuel is uranium-233 bred from thorium in FLiBe blanket salt. Batch reprocessing is likely in the short term, and fuel life is quoted at 4-7 years, with high burn-up. Canada-based Terrestrial Energy has designed the Integral MSR. Molten Salt Reactor Rendering – the IMSR ® Core-unit. Secondary loop coolant salt is also sodium-beryllium fluoride. It is also known as the Fluoride High Temperature Reactor (FHR). Khaykovich studied chromium traces in his samples of sodium chloride, which are important because of the way they get into the molten salt to begin with: usually as corrosion from a reaction between the molten salt and the metal alloy container that holds it. Conventional water- cooled reactors of the salt has to be easily and frequently replaced do n't know explosive... This case the fuel is solid and fixed – the IMSR will operate normally,! 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